Dependency Injection

Container manages objects with the use of attributes. It indexes your project files and extracts classes with the Singleton attribute. Then, it uses constructor arguments to build and inject all the singletons.

Container constructs Singletons lazily, meaning it will only construct them once some other class uses them as a constructor dependency.


Building the Container

By default, Resonance comes with the predefined bin/resonance.php file which initializes the container and your Console commands.

You can modify this file the way you need. By default, it scans your application's files and the base Resonance framework files to search for the classes with the #[Singleton] attribute:

<?php namespace App; use Distantmagic\Resonance\ConsoleApplication; use Distantmagic\Resonance\DependencyInjectionContainer; use Swoole\Runtime; Runtime::enableCoroutine(SWOOLE_HOOK_ALL); $container = new DependencyInjectionContainer(); $container->phpProjectFiles->indexDirectory(DM_RESONANCE_ROOT); $container->phpProjectFiles->indexDirectory(DM_APP_ROOT); $container->registerSingletons(); exit($container->make(ConsoleApplication::class)->run());

Registering Objects in the Container

digraph { container [label="Container"]; singleton_1 [label="#[Singleton]"]; singleton_2 [label="#[Singleton]"]; singleton_3 [label="#[Singleton]"]; singleton_1 -> container; singleton_2 -> container; singleton_3 -> container; }

To register objects in the container, they need to have the Singleton attribute and be placed in the indexed directory.

<?php use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; #[Singleton] class MyClass {}

Binding Implementations to Interfaces

Use provides: property of the Singleton attribute to point out which interface it provides:

<?php use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; #[Singleton(provides: LoggerInterface::class)] class MyLogger implements LoggerInterface { // (...) }

After binding an implementation to an interface, you can refer to that interface in classes autowired by the container (instead of the class that implements this interface):

<?php use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; #[Singleton] class Foo { public function __construct(LoggerInterface $logger) { echo $logger::class; // MyLogger } }


You can implement your logic for the singleton provider by implementing the SingletonProviderInterface.

You can think of them as really elaborate constructors.

PHPProjectFiles contains all the indexed file reflections from your project. You can use it to find classes by attribute (if you need them in your provider). Those files do not necessarily have to be singletons.

<?php use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; use Distantmagic\Resonance\PHPProjectFiles; class Foo { public function __construct(Bar $bar) {} } #[Singleton(provides: Foo::class)] class FooProvider implements SingletonProviderInterface { // provider's constructor arguments are autowired public function __construct(private Bar $bar) {} public function provide( SingletonContainer $singletons, PHPProjectFiles $phpProjectFiles, ): Foo { return new Foo($this->bar); } }


You can assign multiple classes to a collection and then instantiate another class after the Container instantiates all classes in that collection.

Using collections is useful when aggregating multiple classes in one place. For example, suppose you want to use a single class in your application to save logs into multiple storages simultaneously. In that case, you can use a combination of custom attributes and collections:

digraph { ConsoleLogger -> LoggerAggregateProvider; RemoteLogger -> LoggerAggregateProvider; LoggerAggregateProvider -> LoggerAggregate; }
<?php use App\SingletonCollection; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\RequiresSingletonCollection; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; #[Logger] #[Singleton(collection: SingletonCollection::Loggers)] class ConsoleLogger implements LoggerInterface { // (...) } #[Logger] #[Singleton(collection: SingletonCollection::Loggers)] class RemoteLogger implements LoggerInterface { // (...) } class LoggerAggregate implements LoggerInterface { /** * @param array<LoggerInterface> $loggers */ public function __construct(array $loggers) { // (...) } // (...) } #[RequiresSingletonCollection(SingletonCollection::Loggers)] #[Singleton(provides: LoggerInterface::class)] class LoggerAggregateProvider implements SingletonProviderInterface { public function provide(SingletonContainer $singletons, PHPProjectFiles $phpProjectFiles): LoggerInterface { $loggers = []; foreach (new SingletonContainerAttributeIterator($singletons, Logger::class) as $logger) { $loggers[] = $logger; } return new LoggerAggregate($loggers); } }


Autowiring can create a new class instance by injecting its constructor parameters from the container:

<?php use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; #[Singleton] class Bar {} #[Singleton] class Baz {} class Foo { public function __construct(Bar $bar, Baz $baz) { } } // (...) // first Foo instance // roughly equivalent to: new Foo(new Bar(), new Baz()); $foo1 = $container->make(Foo::class); // second Foo instance $foo2 = $container->make(Foo::class);


Sometimes you might want to enable groups of dependencies optionally. For example you might not need to use WebSockets server when you only need to generate static pages. You might also want to use some singletons as optional dependencies.

To manage features you can use two different annotations:

use Distnatmagic\Resonance\Feature; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\GrantsFeature; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\WantsFeature; // MyClass is only going to be added to the DI container if any other class // uses WantsFeature annotation #[GrantsFeature(Feature::WebSocket)]] #[Singleton] class MyClass {} #[WantsFeature(Feature::WebSocket)] #[Singleton] class FooClass { public function __construct( ?MyClass $myClass = null, ) { } }

Side Effects

To execute code when a feature is enabled, you can use side effects.

For example, that class is only going to be executed when Feature::Doctrine is wanted:

<?php namespace App\SideEffectProvider; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\SideEffect; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; use Distantmagic\Resonance\Feature; use Distantmagic\Resonance\SideEffectProvider; use Doctrine\DBAL\Types\Type; use Symfony\Bridge\Doctrine\Types\UlidType; #[SideEffect(Feature::Doctrine)] #[Singleton] readonly class RegisterDoctrineUlidType extends SideEffectProvider { public function provideSideEffect(): void { Type::addType('ulid', UlidType::class); } }

Digging Deeper

Dependencies Resolution

If you apply the Singleton attribute to a class, the DI Container automatically injects its dependencies into the constructor, provided those dependencies already exist in the container.

The container never injects optional constructor arguments. If optional parameters are not registered in the container, the container will not raise the "no reference" exception.

<?php use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; // Instance of Foo is going to be registered in the container #[Singleton] class Foo { // Bar singleton instance is going to be injected here if it's already // registered in the container. Otherwise this would raise an // unresolved reference error. public function __construct( Bar $bar, Baz $baz = null ) {} }

During the server bootstrap phase, all classes tagged with the Singleton attribute within the application directory is indexed. The container reads their constructor arguments and constructs a dependency graph.

For example:

digraph { Foo -> Baz; Foo -> Bar; Bar -> Baz; }
<?php use Distantmagic\Resonance\Attribute\Singleton; #[Singleton] class Foo { } #[Singleton] class Baz { public function __construct(Foo $foo, Bar $bar) {} } #[Singleton] class Bar { public function __construct(Foo $foo) {} }

The Container will instantiate Foo first, as Bar requires it, then it will instantiate Bar, and finally Baz.

You don't have to specify the order of classes' instantiation manually.

Singleton container detects cycles. If class Bar requires Foo and Foo requires Bar then an error is going to be raised.

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